Women may fail to win chairs
because they do not cite themselves enough.
One of academia’s deficiencies is that, though its lecture halls and graduate schools are replete with women, its higher echelons are not. Often, this is seen as a phenomenon specific to the sciences. A report published in 2008 by America’s National Science Foundation, for example, found that in most fields of science and engineering male full professors outnumbered females by nearly four to one. In fact, the disparity applies to the whole grove. Another report from 2006, by the American Association of University Professors, found the same ratio in the faculties of arts, humanities and social science, too.
Observers are divided about the cause.